Although Celan’s “major” language was German (a language he was raised with and wrote his poetry in), Celan’s work was also influenced by “minor” languages. The contrast between major and minor languages comes from Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s book Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature. In the book, the proposal is made that we rethink the writing of authors who, like Kafka, live in a Milleu where more than one language is spoken. And this background enables (and enabled) authors to “deterritorialize” and “reteritorialize” the major language (in the case of Kafka and Celan, German). To be sure, both Kafka and Celan lived on the fringe of the German empire. And both of them played around with different German dialects and styles in their work; this had the advantage of introducing nuance into the major language.
But there is more to the story. Deleuze and Guitarri are not simply interested in what it means to write as a bilingual author. They are also interested in looking at the textual alterations of Kafka (and other writers) in terms of new combinations, relations, and speeds, that these writers introduce (what they call the “machinic”). In other words, they’re writing affects the way the major language speaks by altering textual rhythms and relations.
This is what I see and hear in Paul Celan’s “Conversation in the Mountains” (although it can be heard throughout his poetry but not in such a pronounced manner as in this text). The way this alteration is effected in that text is by way of the repetitive “babbling” and “shrugging” of the schlemiels Klein and Gross. Their conversation introduces a speed that is alien to the German way of conversation. But, unlike Felstiner (whose reading I discussed in my last blog entry) I would say that this alteration has a positive valance. For Celan, it’s strange rhythm opens up a new way for Celan to relate to German, himself, the other, and Jewishness.
After the Holocaust, Celan seeks out a new relationship which takes into account what has been lost and what must survive. But unlike many of his other texts, this one is explicitly comic and was not to be repeated again. Its style is singular. And for that reason it is more powerful. Unlike other writers, performers, and actors, Celan didn’t make the style and rhythms in “Conversation in the Mountains” his “schtick.”
Nonetheless, it stands as a unique moment in his work which calls on his readers to seriously consider how this text was, for him, a milestone. It helped him to deterritorialize and reterritorialize Mausheln (Yiddish dialect German) and German. And he did this in a conversation between two schlemiels, on the one hand, and a minor and a major language, on the other.
I’ll end this entry with the first meeting of schlemiels (what Kakfa in “Excursion in the Mountains” called the meeting of “nobodies”) that “Conversation in the Mountains” records. When Klein meets Gross, there is silence, but as I will show in the next entry, this doesn’t last long:
And who do you think came to meet him? His cousin came to meet him, his first cousin, a quarter of a Jew’s life older, tall he came, came, he too, in a shadow, borrowed of course – because I ask you and ask you, how could he come with his own when God made him a Jew – came, tall, came to meet the other, Gross approached Klein, and Klein, the Jew, silenced his stick before the stick of the Jew Gross.